From Beijing, with love

Greetings! A few months ago I was fortunate enough to get a scholarship from the Chinese government to study in one of the nation’s premier universities and having only arrived on Monday all I can say is that I’m flummoxed by everything. When you’ve lived in East Africa for as long as I have, you forget that there is a huge world out there where no one speaks your language, looks like you, or has even heard of your country.

The blogger in front of Joy City Mall, Chaoyang District

The blogger in front of Joy City Mall, Chaoyang District

I felt smug about the strides that Rwanda had made, especially when I compared the state of our airport compared to Addis Ababa International. Visiting the bathrooms there, I was shocked to see men wash their feet in the sinks; to say that I was relieved to leave the airport would be an understatement. However, Beijing airport put me firmly in my place. The massive piece of infrastructure was a sight to behold. It took me a long walk, a train ride for about five minutes and a bus trip to leave the behemoth. My eyes only widened as we drove into the city proper. My senses were assailed; the air was heavy, the neon lights made my squint and the muggy air made the sweat stick on my brow. And the people! My goodness. I knew that China was the most populous country in the world, but knowing something, and then seeing it is another thing. Heard the story about how Chinese are short? Honestly, I didn’t find them as ‘vertically-challenged’ as I thought I would.

I expected many things but I didn’t think I would be so surprised by just how modern everything

A snapshot of bustling downtown Beijing

A snapshot of bustling downtown Beijing

was. And just how wealthy many of the people were. It seemed that every second car was an expensive German brand (people here especially seem to be in love with Audis). And how business savvy they are. As soon as you step outside the university’s gates, you are plunged into the topsy-turvy world of Chinese commerce. You want fresh fruits? You’ll find them. Want a bicycle? A laptop? A car? Anything at all? I’m sure you can buy them everything you could possibly want a kilometer from the university.

More than merely education, I appreciate this opportunity because it has allowed me to step back and look at things a new. First of all, it has taken me out of my comfort zone. Experiences like these make one realize just how small and inconsequential they are in the larger scope of things. When you are in a community like ours where people know not just you, but also your father, grandfather and every single member of your family, you forget what it’s like to reestablish yourself as an individual of substance. No one knows just how interesting, friendly or intelligent you are. They don’t know your country and what why you are proud when you tell them you are from Rwanda. “That is in Africa right?”, one fellow international student asked.

When you are in the hurly-burley of Kigali daily life, one forgets to look around and appreciate everything. I miss the hills, the sunny sky ( I haven’t seen the sun in the sky for most of the day), the regular rhythms and my community. I miss going to work in the morning and relaxing in my sofa in the evening. But as I say that, don’t for a second think that I would change a single thing. Rwandans have prospered all over the world, without losing who they are as a people, because of the strength of our culture and inherent ‘agaciro‘. I can’t think of a reason why my experience will be different.


Overrated and in a critical state? May Rwanda always remain thus

Just-one-of-Tim-Smiths-photos-of-RwandaYesterday morning, I found my email inbox clogged with stories from FP (Foreign Policy) magazine, detailing how, despite the fact that in President Paul Kagame we had the most effective political leader on the continent, Rwanda was still in a critical state and overrated to boot.

Africa Rising?

First the ‘good’ news. According to more than 60 experts (the vast majority American) that FP talked to for its ‘Africa Rising?’ survey, our president is the “most effective political leader”, ‘beating’ Senegal’s Macky Sall, Liberia’s Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Ghana’s John Mahama. I don’t know what criteria the experts used to rank the various presidents (after all each of them have their own challenges) but the mere fact that they actually thought that that was a good idea was problematic in my humble opinion.  I mean, how arrogant can FP be? What were the criteria that they used? Why was President Mahama less ‘effective’ than President Sall?CE_Rwanda_two_children

Oh, and did you know that Rwanda was the ‘most overrated African story’? According to those 60 experts, we edged out South Africa, Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. I’ll be surprised if I ever see a better backhanded compliment ever again. So, is Rwanda a failing state that has ‘confused’ everyone or is it a stable one that has too much good PR? Either way, all I can surmise is that we are doing something well. And honestly, I’d rather be on the overrated list than the underrated one. Potential investors and tourists will hear about the ‘overrated’ African country before they ever hear of the underrated one.

Is Rwanda a failed state?

 I was extremely curious to find out how the 2013 Failed State Index was put together by FP and its1367359490DS partner, The Fund for Peace.

Guess what, the entire index is put together by a computer programme! The Fund for Peace, states that the Index is based on the,” Conflict Assessment Software Tool (CAST) analytical platform….Through sophisticated search parameters and algorithms, the CAST software separates the relevant data from the irrelevant…. Using various algorithms, this analysis is then converted into a score representing the significance of each of the various pressures for a given country”.

I know that I’m not a genius by any stretch of the imagination, but any computer programme that ranks Rwanda and Mali at the same level has had a virus introduced into its hard drive. I mean, isn’t that the same Mali that our own Gen. Kazura is going to in order to pacify, alongside other UN troops? Isn’t that the same country that had a coup d’ etat just a few years ago? How can Rwanda be ranked similarly to a country that was split almost in two? Where there is still an insurgency?

dsc003211How could the computer programme get it so wrong?  How could Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt be ranked lower than Libya? Well, to understand why the programme seemed to lack all common sense, I had to understand the criteria that it used to come to it’s conclusions. The criteria was demographic pressures, refugees and IDP’s, group grievances, human flight and brain drain, uneven economic development, poverty and economic decline, state legitimacy, public services, human rights and rule of law, security apparatus, factionalised elites and external intervention.

If this criterion was used, how could Mali and Rwanda be in the same playing field, never mind the8572344652_47f3b791db_o same position? Perhaps the only criterion that Mali could ‘beat’ Rwanda in was demographic pressure. But if population pressure is what ensures critical statehood, then Rwanda will forever be on the wrong side of the FP/Fund for Peace argument.

But let us see why Rwanda is in a critical state. Is it because Rwanda’s GDP per capita rose from $593 in 2011 to $644 in 2012? Is it because one million people were pulled from the clutches of destitution as poverty dropped by 11.8% since 2006? Is it because the budget is 60% self-financed? Is it because infant mortality fell by 41% since 2006? If it is so, then I can only pray that we continue being unapologetically ‘critical’.


Cut our young leaders some slack people, don’t expect miracles

Arthur, Former Chairman of Media High Council and new Orinfor head, with Minister of State in charge of Cabinet Affairs Protais Musoni (Photo: Timothy Kisambira)

Arthur, Former Chairman of Media High Council and new Orinfor head, with Minister of State in charge of Cabinet Affairs Protais Musoni (Photo: Timothy Kisambira)

Last week I was pleasantly surprised to learn that Arthur Asiimwe, fellow columnist, former colleague, close personal friend (and in-law to boot) was given the task to reinvigorate Orinfor, the national broadcast service, as its new managing director.  I wish him the very best of luck because he will need it. Cleaning up the mess in Orinfor will be more difficult than cleaning the mythical Augean Stables.

His task isn’t only removing all the deadwood in Radio Rwanda, Rwanda Television and the Printer, he must also improve programming. All this without being able to carry out a cull in the institution simply because firing staff is notoriously difficult. He will need the strength of Hercules, the stamina of Haile Gebrasalassie, the patience of a saint and the Wisdom of Solomon. All this at the tender age of 32.

Rwanda is a really interesting nation. I’ve lived in a few countries in the world, but I cannot think of one that has so many young people holding the levers of power. It doesn’t matter the institution, you will find 20 and 30-somethings running things. We have Advisors to Ministers who are just 28. Imagine, 28 years of age. That’s incredible.


A case of too much too soon? President Kagame attended the Agaciro Fund event organised by Umurinzi Young Professionals- Kigali, 5 October 2012

A case of too much too soon? President Kagame attended the Agaciro Fund event organised by Umurinzi Young Professionals- Kigali, 5 October 2012

And while these youngsters have Ivy League educations, they usually have less than five years working experience in any position. As anyone will tell you, there is a huge disparity between the actual workplace and the university classroom.

I’ve worked in the media industry for the last decade on and off. What I’ve noticed is that, because of the low skills base, people who should be cub reporters (or mere staff writers and journalists) are put in positions of authority in the newsrooms merely because they are proficient in either French or English and have more than rudimentary skills in communication. So, instead of learning the tools of the trade they become leaders. The situation is like the idiom, ‘in the land of the blind the one-eyed person is king’. Lets not forget however, that despite their ‘royalty’, they are still one-eyed.

One of the biggest problems that I’ve had in the career I’ve chosen is the lack of ‘Inararibonye’ (mentors); men and women who I want to emulate and can learn a lot from. Not just about work but about life as well.  All this makes me wonder, where are these experienced hands? Where are the professionals who have worked in institutions for decades, garnering years of institutional knowledge, willing to pass on all their knowledge? I don’t know. Perhaps they have all retired.


An artistic impression of the proposed Orinfor HQ's.

An artistic impression of the proposed Orinfor HQ’s.

While I don’t want to live in a country where the vast majority of the leadership is almost senile, it is my belief that many prospective ‘Young Turks’ end up not living up to expectation simply because they end up biting off more than they can chew. Not because they were unqualified or unintelligent but because they weren’t ready. Instead of making them head honchos, perhaps it would’ve been wiser to groom them slowly and let them grow into their positions. Trust me, it sometimes gets overwhelming for us young folk.

I have a theory that perhaps explains all this. The Liberation War was fought and won by men and women in their 30’s.  So the logic is, if these ‘youngsters’ could do it, why can’t the next generation? Those who subscribe to this theory must understand that, first of all, these young people were actually battle-hardened and therefore, experienced. Secondly, they had many mentors who shared with them their life lessons. The lessons that they learnt from Inararibonye are still being applied today as they govern the country.

I’m not saying that we cannot do the job. I’m not saying that we are frightened of carrying the mantle. All I’m saying is that you cannot expect miracles from us. Understand that we shall make mistakes; not because we are incompetent but simply because we are learning on the job.

Want to realize Vision 2020? Then start eating at your desk!

Kigali City as envisaged in the Vision 2020 development plan

Kigali City as envisaged in the Vision 2020 development plan

About a month ago, I found myself in a conference room at the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning building listening to a presentation on the second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS 2).  I discovered that Rwanda’s leadership refused to rest on its laurels. I learnt that despite the fact that one million Rwandans had said “urabeho” to poverty, enjoying growth rates of above 8%, there was even more goals needed to accomplish.

According to Mr. Godfrey Kabera, the Ministry’s Director of Policy Evaluation and Research, key targets of the EDPRS 2 is an average growth rate of 11.5% per year, poverty reduction to below 30% and the creation of 200,00 new jobs a year among others. All this in between 2013- 2018. While a growth rate of 11.5% per year is extremely high, it isn’t impossible. Just think about it, how hard was it get to 8% growth a year? Now, we need to ask ourselves, how can we squeeze an extra four percent?

The only way that this will become possible is if we individualize our country’s development goals. We need to make them our own. And, if we are honest with ourselves, we know where we can improve our individual output. For example, if you enter the vast majority of public and private institutions at around two in the afternoon, you will be met with closed doors and empty offices. Why? Because the staff members have disappeared to enjoy a two-hour lunch break.

I had an interesting conversation with a senior manager in a government department. I asked him what he thought about the average workers

The famous Afrika Bite lunch buffet

The famous Afrika Bite lunch buffet

lunchtime routine of either driving home or walking to a nearby restaurant to enjoy a leisurely meal. “How much output was his institution losing, I asked. “Probably millions”, he answered. We then discussed whether it would be possible to change the lunch culture to make it normal for workers to either eat a packed lunch at their desks or in the communal cafeteria.  We agreed that it would need a sea change in the way we tackled work. Leisurely three-course lunches with a siesta thrown in would have to be replaced with sandwiches at the workstation. Other workers around the world do it, why can’t we?  You can say that it would increase output by minuscule proportions, but every little thing counts. Remember, we are talking about a ‘mere’ addition 4%.

They say that ‘time is money’. Well, if this is so, we are losing billions because of people’s tardiness.  About two months ago, I needed to get

Eat at work people!

Eat at work people!

something notarized and so I travelled to the notary offices at The High Court premises. First of all, I was shocked to learn that the notary only worked after two in the afternoon. It was plastered proudly on her door (perhaps that is policy). However, what really got my goat was the fact that when her office hours begun, she was nowhere to be found. This, despite the fact that there were about fifty people patiently waiting for her.

Sure you can say that she finally appeared and did her job but I wonder, how many man hours did she make those 50-plus people waste? One, three, four? If each person lost about five hundred francs sitting there doing nothing productive then collectively they, and the country, lost 25,000 worth of output (which I believe is a very low estimation). And that is in a single office.

I’m not so arrogant that I think that better time management will take us to the Promised Land, but unless we radically improve it, we will struggle a lot more than we really need to.


Congo: Forget who started the fire, who will put it out?

As I’ve done before, I have a guest writer on my blog, Rama Isibo. His views are not necessarily my own. 

Congolese refugees displaced within their own homeland by militias and armies, fighting with foreign weapons for foreign purposes, face extremely rough conditions in makeshift Camp de Kahe in Kitchanga in the Masisi district of Congo’s North Kivu Province, near the Rwandan border. – Photo: S. Schulman, UNHCR

Congolese refugees displaced within their own homeland by militias and armies, fighting with foreign weapons for foreign purposes, face extremely rough conditions in makeshift Camp de Kahe in Kitchanga in the Masisi district of Congo’s North Kivu Province, near the Rwandan border. – Photo: S. Schulman, UNHCR

The recent crisis precipitated by the M23 rebellion is the latest in a long saga dating back to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Since the Genocide, we have seen an escalation of the conflict to the extent that there are now 23 armed groups fighting to fill the vacuum left by the state. The governance model of DRC going back to the days of Mobutu was to have a weak central government, weak army, a corrupt civil service which was hardly ever paid on time, and hope for the best. Instead of disarming or fighting these groups, the government has accommodated, used one to fight the other, and therefore not helped the situation. We all know the history, but history will not solve the crisis, Rwanda has been blamed but didn’t understand this blame was a cry for help. The blame was a call for Rwanda to solve the crisis, the fact that we are going to suffer as a nation means that we are compelled to drive home a solution. We cannot afford to go through the five stages of grief over aid cuts; denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. We must sort this out before it derails our development and makes it Vision2025.

 The birth of a nation

The New York Times ran an article called “To save Congo, we have to let it fall apart.” The piece called for what the Congolese fear the most “Balkanisation” or fragmentation, but this in itself is not viable in the short-term. There is little support for the Republic of Kivu among most Kivutians, yes they are fed up with the Kinshasa government but know that all areas of Congo are let down by Kinshasa, just that they suffer the most. They are patchwork-quilt of tribes that have rarely gotten along, but to ask for statehood in an era where states are coming together under Superstates is hard. Even the recent example of Southern Sudan needed a referendum even though it was obvious that nearly all Southerners wanted to secede. To start a state is one day of happiness, then years of work, a Kivu state would need billions of dollars of aid to start. Even with billions of dollars under its soil in the form of minerals, Kivu would start at the bottom, with the highest infant mortality, highest number of rape victims, 90% of the people exhibiting trauma, and every other negative. The dynamics are pulling Kivu away from Congo but not just yet, the solution is better governance.

The Katumbi effect

There is an accepted myth that Congolese are inherently stupid and ungovernable, it is shared by people in the

Moïse Katumbi Katebe Chapwe, a multimillionaire, is the powerful governor of the Province of Katanga. He is also a member of President Joseph Kabila’s ruling party PPRD.

Moïse Katumbi Katebe Chapwe, a multimillionaire, is the powerful governor of the Province of Katanga. He is also a member of President Joseph Kabila’s ruling party PPRD.

Kinshasa government, NGO’s, the international community and even many Congolese themselves. This they say, is a result of two men whose shadows loom over Congo; King Leopold and Mobutu Sese Seko, it is true that with a broken down society the Congolese revert to their most disagreeable nature but exceptions exist. Moise Katumbi, the Governor of Katanga is undoubtedly a future president of Congo, he rules Katanga, the richest province with a vision that is rarely seen in Africa. Born to a Jewish father and Congolese mother, he changed his name from Moise Soriano to Katumbi Chapwe, this gave him authenticity among Congolese. It was his works that have earned him respect all over Congo, he hardly asks the Kinshasa government for anything, he builds roads, schools, hospitals, public works with royalties taxed direct to mining companies and sends taxes to Kinshasa. It also helps that he has the most popular football team in Congo, TP Mazembe. If he chose to run then Kabila wouldn’t stand a chance as Katumbi would take his powerbase among the Luba in Lumumbashi with him. Governance can start with one man, under Katumbi all the uniquely Congolese traits have been calmed, Kivu needs a Katumbi, a man who governs for the best interests of his people like they are a separate state.

A uniquely Rwandan solution

congo-war-2012Rwanda is going through a spin at the moment, several months of political pressure from donors and western media have left it reeling. We have vehemently denied, got angry, tried to bargain but to no effect. It was amazing to see ministers saying “we don’t need aid” as if it is a fait accompli, the aid is not off the table it is merely suspended, we can and will get it back if we can find a permanent solution to this Congo crisis. In that way we can kill two birds with one stone, but first we need honesty on both sides. Rwanda has been in a covert proxy war with DRC and Zaire since 1994, we should openly admit that, just as Congo has been supporting FDLR against Rwanda. There has to be a peace and security treaty between the two nations with a genuine cause for mutual security. There is no solution without Rwanda, Rwanda has a genuine security threat but some individuals in Rwanda have benefited from the chaos in Congo. The FDLR has to be disarmed, as well as other groups, the Wild, Wild West that is Kivu must be tamed, the UN must leave and Africans must solve this problem. We as Rwanda must move past the GoE report, and present viable solutions to end this crisis as we are suffering from its effects, we need to be honest about our involvement citing our genuine security concerns and draw a line under it.

Hope for Kivu

Kivu can have peace, the people are exhausted by war, exhausted by running for refuge, it is not an interminable problem, there are drivers to this crisis. The breakdown of the Congo state; foreign rebel armies, the greed for minerals, the inactive UN, and lack of investment and infrastructure must all be solved. One critic, Gerald Prunier said “M23 is a pimple, but there is a deeper cancer in Congo” and this is true indeed. Kabila might fear a strong army in Kinshasa but he needs a strong army in Kivu, not strong in numbers but as ideological motivated and disciplined as the M23. Not all Banyamulenge have supported M23, others have stayed loyal like Patrick Masunzu, if he could appoint a loyal local general who is acceptable to all sides, as a governor of North Kivu, then M23 would not have a reason to exist. The current Governor Julien Paluku is a joke to say the least, spat upon in the streets for his comical blunders, he was hounded by mobs out of Kisangani. If he had a Patrick Masunzu or a similar figure, who can start to disarm these groups, rule the area like a sovereign state but still remain loyal to Kinshasa, to follow the Katumbi model. The West will also have to pump some clean money into Kivu because most of the money there is derived from illegal means, they need clean money in Kivu. They also need investment in roads, just like the railroad pacified the Wild Wild West, a highway would open up Kivu.

Rwanda cannot afford to look back and continue the denial game, it is what the West wants, someone to blamecongo-war and buy time while the war continues. That is what the GoE UN report was, a litany of blame, blame the wrong guy and force him to fix it. I saw this personally in UK, when the police would arrest a wrong guy for murder just so people could name the real murderer and exonerate him. This is the situation Rwanda is in, they have prior involvement in Congo so they must be the ones, other than deny, deny, deny, we should come up with an equitable solution that keeps Congo together, brings peace to Kivu, guarantees our security, and helps develop the region. We can take hope from a previously “interminable” conflict in Northern Ireland, though they are not the same the dynamics are similar. A divided community, a part wants to be part of one country, a part wants to be part of another, and they are living street by street. We also had UK and Ireland fighting proxy wars, funding militia and terrorists, international crime meets ideological warriors. Devolution saw all sides reaching an equitable solution, it needed Britain and Ireland first to agree to solve the situation, then it was a complex negotiation between various groups for power-sharing. We all know the solution for Kivu but no one has the guts to utter the solution. We must just accept the West’s ignorance as just that, but help fix it not because the West told us, fix it because you cannot live next door to a burning house without the burning embers reaching yours. While we argue about who started the fire, the fire is just burning out of control. Rwanda needs to be talked off the ledge, it is not all over, this can be resolved, and the sooner the better.

Aid cuts: Now isn’t the time to panic

I’ve been, for the last few days, in a place so remote that even the thought of surfing the Internet would have been a fool’s errand. While being detached from my trusty Google alerts, Twitter and Facebook was somewhat disconcerting at first, eventually I allowed myself to mellow out and enjoy a simply, and honestly, less stressful existence. The news junkie in me didn’t like going ‘cold turkey’ but I managed.

The last time I was exposed to any of my news sources, the UK was still debating revoking our aid, the World Bank and the African Development Bank (ADB) were still above the political posturing and the M23 was still giving the FARDC a good kicking up and down North and South Kivu. And all the while, the member states of the ICGLR were trying to find a path to a sustainable peace in the region.

Britain’s International Development Secretary Justine Greening: ‘Continued support for Rwanda would depend on progress on various issues’. Thats of course before she decided to CUT off British Aid!

Britain’s International Development Secretary Justine Greening: ‘Continued support for Rwanda would depend on progress on various issues’. Thats of course before she decided to CUT off British Aid!

So, imagine my surprise when I got online on yesterday. I discovered that the UK Development Secretary Greening has suspended aid, as did the World Bank and the ADB.  The M23 had left Goma and retreated to its environs while the emboldened FDLR had attacked Rwanda, killing a park warden in Kinigi, causing the American government to issue a travel warning to its citizens, advising them not to travel to see the gorillas. I was amazed by just how much things could change in less than a week.

Yesterday morning, while listening to the Ministers’ of Finance, Defence and Foreign Affairs as they addressed both chambers of Parliament, I instantly understood what they were attempting to do. They were cutting through all the speculation and rumor in order to reassure Rwandans that their world wasn’t crashing around their heads.  As Minister Rwangombwa said, GDP will fall by around 1.5 percent next year, from the expected seven percent growth, if almost all the donor monies are excluded from the national budget.

Juliette is one of Rwanda's success stories - a farmer who increased her harvest thanks to support from UK aid. Picture: Tiggy Ridley

Juliette is one of Rwanda’s success stories – a farmer who increased her harvest thanks to support from UK aid. Picture: Tiggy Ridley

I will not be one of those people who totally dismiss these cuts, because, if we are to be honest, they will affect us in various ways. Inflation will certainly rise, certain development projects will have to be shelved and Rwanda’s international brand will be harmed.  However, we mustn’t allow ourselves to become demoralized.

Just look back and remember how far we’ve come.  Only 18 years ago, our ministries were stripped bare by a retreating genocidal government, with nary a pen, chair or table to be found.  We didn’t have an economy to talk about, never mind foreign exchange reserves. Everything must be put in perspective. While the cuts will affect us, they will not make us grovel, nor should they. We are a proud people who’ve seen worse days than these. When we plunged to the depths of hell, we lifted ourselves up. We weren’t saved by the western media, NGO’s and governments. We sought our own solutions and look at us now.

Will the farmer abandon his farm? Will the moto rider park his motorcycle? Will the civil servant stop serving the populace? Will the shop owner stop stocking their shelves? No.  Tomorrow, they, and I, will go about our lives.

Rwandan soldiers return home after operations in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they participated in joint operations against rebel militias there.

Rwandan soldiers return home after operations in the eastern provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where they participated in joint operations against rebel militias there.

Sibo Mana’. ‘They are not God”.   No truer sentiments have been expressed. There are people who think that they have the power to determine other people’s lives and destinies.  They believe that because they have money, they are allowed to trample on people’s rights. This kind of thinking must be challenged. As the President said, “”we are a small country, not a small people”.

I think that these aid cuts will, fifty years from now, be looked at as the moment that Rwandans challenged the prevailing view on what ‘poor’ nations could and couldn’t do.

A Slap in the Face to Donors. “Aid Suspensions Hasty”, says London School of Economics don

Conservative Chief Whip and former UK Minister of International Development, Andrew Mitchell.

Gleeful Rwanda-haters thought that our world would end with the suspension of aid worth 46 million but I disagreed. As did international rating agencies such as Fitch. Former UK Minister of International Development, Andrew Mitchell, is getting quite a battering from British newspapers for unblocking 16 million Pounds, but perhaps he will have the last laugh.

Professor James Putzel, co-author of Meeting the Challenges of Crisis States, a report from the London School of Economics, questions the decision of the EU, the US and Germany to partially freezing aid.

“Donors have been precipitous in suspending aid,” said Putzel. “The evidence is much more mixed and it’s complicated. Of course there are some ethnic and family links across the border, but generally the Rwandan government has been judicious in staying its hand.”

Here is the Executive Summary of the Report. And here is the full report